Classes and Objects in C++ (Introduction)

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Class and Objects in C++

In our programming tutorials of C++ Programs for beginners, today we will see the concept of classes and Objects in C++. What is a class in a Programming Language? What are objects? How to use Class and Objects in C++? We will answer all your doubts here on Programmingy.

What are Classes and Objects in C++

Definition of Classes are explained in the previous article and now we have to focus on the classes and objects basics. For a quick recap, A class is just a blueprint for real world entities. In this article, we will see how classes and objects are declared with their syntax. The classes are a most important unit of the programs made in c++ because as we know that c++ is an object oriented programming language and without the objects and classes the c++ will behave like normal c language.

The promotion of c in c++ is based on the ease that the object oriented model of c++ lets the programmer work on it more easily. The classes are the blueprint provided in the c++ to make programs more easy and flexible. The objects are the instance of the class means that without objects a class will remain as a skeleton and will not be used.

A syntax of class in C++:

class class_name

{

data members;
member functions;

};

In c++ the class begins with the keyword “class” which has a special meaning and function in the compiler and as shown in the above syntax, then preceded by the “class_name”. Always note that the class ends with the semicolon after the closing curly braces. Inside the class, there are data members and member functions. Now taking a close look at these two terms:

Data members: These are the variables defined inside the class. By default the data members are “private” to a class means they are only accessible inside the class, to use them outside the class we have to define them with the “public” keyword. private and public have their usual meaning as they have in real life, the difference comes in the way programming language is using them.

member functions: These are the functions defined inside the class. The concept is similar as to the data members that are member functions if not defined public they will behave as private and will only be accessible within the class.

Learn: Difference in C and C++

Now coming to the syntax of the objects in C++:

void main()

{

class_name  object_name;

object_name.member function();

}

an object is created in the main preceded by the “class_name”, the member function is called in the main using object’s name.

let us see an example program on the creation of class and objects in c++. you can use turbo c++ editor to run the below program, the output will also be shown on this program:

Read: What is Computer Programming

Example Program for Classes and Objects: –

#include<iostream.h>
#include<conio.h>
class teacher
{
char name[20];
int f_no;
public:
void get_one()
{
cout<<“enter the name:”;
cin>>name;
cout<<“\n enter the faculty number: “;
cin>>f_no;
}
void display()
{
cout<<“\n the entered name is: “<<name;
cout<<“\n the faculty number is:”<<f_no;
}
};

void main()
{
clrscr();
teacher obj;
obj.get_one();
obj.display();
getch();
}

In this program, we have created a class named teacher and declared data members and member functions. By default, the data members will be private. The member functions are called in the main through object “obj”. If the member functions not declared as public they will behave as private members and will not be accessed outside the class, therefore, we should always declare the member function as public. The get_one() function is used to take input and display() function is used to show the output. let us see the output of this program:

Concept of Classes and Objects in C++
Classes and Objects in C++

If you do have any doubt, please let us know via comments. I hope you learnt the concept of Classes and Objects in C Plus Plus very well and are clear with the OOPS concept. Do not forget to join our newsletter to learn C++ Programming quickly and in easy way.

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