Here’s another Article in our series of Learn C++ Programming for beginners. In this article, we will explain the main Difference in C and C++ Programming Language. We will also try to explain these differences in a very simple Manner. You can use this article to complete your school and college Assignments as well.
Difference in C and C++
The 1st difference between c and c++ is that, c follows structural programming whereas c++ follows object oriented concepts. So now we will first see what is a structural programming.
In c programming, a program is divided into small functions or procedures so an individual can work on it separately so that one should focus on the problem which is in front, rather than solving the problem at the end of the code. For a better understanding of this point let us take an example, suppose you are a chef and you are making several kinds of dishes for an event and you need some more assistant chefs to the work being carried out, so each assistant would focus on the individual dishes rather than the overall dishes. It also makes a work easy for an individual. The same is the working in c programming.
Now coming to c++, this language follows the concepts of class, objects, inheritance, polymorphism, abstraction, encapsulation( binding the data variables and functions in a class ), namespace, exception handling, Function overloading and operator overloading. let us discuss the concepts of c++ :
Difference in C and C++ | OOPS Concepts in C++
1.class: A class is a blueprint for any functional entity(anything which is present in the real world physically or logically) which defines its properties and its functions. Like a dog is black in colour, have a size and weight is an entity and it is walking, barking, etc is its properties.
2.objects: An instance of a class is called an object. Like jeans, tops, shirts, etc come under clothing. Here the clothing is a class whereas the other is an object.
3.inheritance: Example: your father has inherited some features of your grandfather and you have inherited some features from your father. The same is the concept of inheritance in a class. The class(base class) has some features and the other class(derived class) inherited from the parent class will have some features of the parent class.
4.polymorphism: In c++ we can have a function as an argument and the other function with same name but different arguments, which will perform differently. This is the concept of polymorphism. This leads to the concept of function overloading we will discuss that below.
5.Abstraction: Abstraction means showing the required things while hiding the essential details. Like on seeing a normal person we can only see his/her physical features while the character of the person is still unknown, depending on the person what he/she wants to show.
6.Encapsulation: Encapsulation is the binding the data variables and the functions together in a class or wrapping up of things in a single unit.
7.Namespace: Imagine you overcome a situation where you met a person at some place with the same name as yours, now what will you do??. Maybe there are some things that differentiate you from the other person, the same is the concept of namespace. The namespace is designed to overcome this type of difficulties and is used as additional information to differentiate similar functions, classes, variables, etc.
8.Function and Operator overloading: Functions in c++ can have the same name with different arguments this is called function overloading. By this feature of c++, one can make a similar function with the different argument in spite of remembering and using different functions for different work in c programming.
Operator overloading is the advanced feature of c++. In this one can make the built-in operator work according to its use. A programmer can provide his/her own operator to a class by overloading the built-in operator to perform some specific computation when the operator is used on objects of that class.
9.Exception handling: The problem during the execution of the program is called an exception. c++ responses to an exceptional circumstance that arises while a program is running, such as an attempt to divide by zero.
Other Difference in C and C++ School Assignments (Well Explained)
Now coming on to the 2nd difference, a c programming’s emphasis is on procedure or steps to solve any problem whereas in c++ emphasis on objects rather than procedure.
Several procedures are followed in c programming to solve a problem whereas in c++ the main focus in on objects of a class.
The 3rd difference is that in c programming functions are the fundamental building blocks whereas in c++ objects are the fundamental building blocks of a c++ program.
Using of Objects reduces the programming in c++ and make it much easier than in c.
4th difference: In c language, the data is not secured while in c++ the data is secured by one of the properties called data abstraction.
5th difference: C follows top down approach while c++ follows a bottom up approach.
Any problem in c is divided into modules/parts and then the work is done on each module whereas in c++ work is done on several modules to make a program. This reduces the chances of error in c++ programming.
6th difference: variables in c programming is always defined at the beginning of the function whereas in c++ variables can be defined anywhere in the function thus providing the flexibility in it.
7th difference: c does not support the features like namespace, exception handling, function and operator overloading. Whereas c++ supports all of these features.
8th difference: The c++ also provides the features like constructor and destructor. A constructor is a member function which has the same name of the class without a return type. The destructor is the function which is called when the scope of an object is over/the object is no more in use in the program. The c language does not have this kind of feature.
9th difference: The function and constructor overloading can be done in c++ so as to make programming more efficient in comparison to c language. The constructor overloading can be achieved by repeatedly using one constructor for other users also.
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